Agriculture\u00a0is\u00a0undergoing\u00a0a digital transformation that could\u00a0yield\u00a0$500 billion in the global\u00a0gross\u00a0domestic product by 2030,\u00a0according\u00a0to\u00a0data\u00a0from\u00a0McKinsey\u00a0& Company.\u00a0Artificial intelligence, analytics, connected sensors, and other emerging technologies can further increase yields,\u00a0improve\u00a0the\u00a0efficiency\u00a0of\u00a0water\u00a0and other inputs, and\u00a0build\u00a0sustainability\u00a0and\u00a0resilience\u00a0across crop and livestock cultivation. However, while current IoT technologies running on 3G and 4G cellular networks are sufficient today to enable simpler use cases such as advanced crop and livestock monitoring, they cannot unlock the full potential value that connectivity holds for agriculture. To achieve this, the industry will need to make use of digital applications and analytics that will require low latency, high bandwidth, high resilience, and support for a density of devices offered by advanced and frontier connectivity technologies such as LPWAN, 5G, and LEO satellites. Therefore, it will be necessary to\u00a0develop\u00a0the current infrastructure to\u00a0enable\u00a0connectivity\u00a0in\u00a0agriculture\u00a0and work out solid business cases.\u00a0 McKinsey\u00a0analyzed five\u00a0use\u00a0cases\u00a0\u2014 crop monitoring, livestock monitoring, building, and equipment management, drone farming, and autonomous farm machinery \u2014\u00a0where enhanced connectivity is\u00a0already\u00a0in the early stages of\u00a0use\u00a0and is likely to deliver higher yields, lower costs, and\u00a0greater\u00a0resilience and\u00a0sustainability\u00a0the industry needs to\u00a0thrive\u00a0in the 21st\u00a0century. In Brazil Luis Ar\u00eds, business development manager at Paessler Latin America, focused on the impact of these technologies on Brazilian agribusiness, in an article distributed by the company's press office this week. According to him, the sector invoiced R$ 2 trillion in Brazil and its participation in the GDP grew 2%. "It is an export industry that, in 2020, invoiced US$ 101 billion in sales of products such as soy, meat, sugar, cotton, and meat - according to data from ESALQ\/USP. "In 2021, the competitiveness of this sector depended more and more on automation. The market competed for by Brazilian agribusiness is global and extremely agile and requires this sector to be continuously engaged in digital innovation programs", he writes. "Relying on a digitized and connected infrastructure is essential to make the leap towards Precision Farming, a method that aims to manage agricultural land in a differentiated way and targeted at maximum productivity." According to Ar\u00eds, we can already see the results of this technology, for example in smart vineyards, which provide the best fertile soil for good vines and ultimately produce better wines. The effects of global warming can be seen in viticulture. This has led managers to look for ways to deal with the possibility of rapid climate change and more extreme weather conditions. "In this context, more and more winemakers are using IoT sensors distributed throughout the vineyards. The goal is to send environmental data, drone images, and information about the composition of the vine leaves to ERP platforms in the cloud. This data is visualized and analyzed on these platforms, generating a better overview of what is happening in the field, something essential for planning daily work. The analyses, for example, can be performed with Power BI solutions and with the help of Cognitive Services," writes the executive. With the help of the IoT infrastructure, therefore, winegrowers can better plan their daily work and know that their vineyards and grapes are always well protected. Ar\u00eds points out that the DNA of this sector, based on huge properties with little or no digital structure, has led managers to study what is the best type of LPWAN to apply in their properties and thus connect IoT devices. Among the various LPWAN technologies used in agribusiness are LoRA, Sigfox, MIOTY, NB IoT, and LTE-M. Ar\u00eds describes the most common use cases for each of them. LoRa - With LoRa tags it is possible to track, for example, a herd moving across a vast field. This ensures the delivery of a wide variety of data: reading the data can indicate whether a bull or cow is sick, bogged down, lost, or dead. The temperature measured by the IoT device and transmitted by the LoRa tag can, on the other hand, indicate a dead bull that, if not detected, could spread disease to others. A live (temperature) but static (GPS) animal could be injured or bogged down. The LoRa network uses radio frequency (unlicensed spectrum) to transmit data in a very optimal way over distances of up to more than 15 kilometers between connected points. The battery of the LoRa device can last up to ten years. Sigfox - This technology is suitable for applications with extremely small bandwidths and equally restricted-energy budgets. These are typical constraints in the agricultural business. The goal is to use transmitters that are autonomous and not dependent on a power supply. The special point about Sigfox is that it is a standalone network for IoT devices. It is an open standard that operates at sub-GHz frequencies (between 868 and 928 MHz) and can be used by any wireless service provider, which facilitates the connection between the field and operator networks. MIOTY - The Fraunhofer Institute's MIOTY software solution uses a technology that increases its geographical range by 10 times compared to conventional 868 MHz wireless systems. Because it creates little interference for itself, the system can simultaneously support up to a million transmitters. It is typically a technology for massive use in large environments that need to be interconnected. MIOTY offers extended battery operation of up to several decades. NB IoT (and LTE-M) - This new narrowband radio technology offers services suitable for a small bandwidth. It uses existing LTE and GSM operator infrastructure to facilitate communication with IoT devices. LTE-M is part of release 13 of the 3GPP standards \u2014 compatible with future 5G networks \u2014 to reduce power consumption, reduce the cost of devices and enable greater coverage. In addition, it offers what is perhaps the highest level of security of all the LPWAN technologies presented here. Given how competitive the global agribusiness market is, taking care of digital security is a critical factor in these projects. Each of these network standards\u00a0\u2014\u00a0LoRa,\u00a0Sigfox,\u00a0MIOTY\u00a0and NB\u00a0IoT\u00a0\u2014\u00a0excels in specific applications.\u00a0This\u00a0study\u00a0requires\u00a0a consultative look at\u00a0each\u00a0agribusiness company's\u00a0challenge\u00a0and how to\u00a0address\u00a0it.\u00a0The most likely answer will be\u00a0based\u00a0on a hybrid environment, where\u00a0different\u00a0versions of\u00a0LPWAN\u00a0networks\u00a0will\u00a0combine\u00a0with\u00a0each\u00a0other to\u00a0ignite\u00a0all\u00a0sectors\u00a0of the\u00a0company, from soybean fields to\u00a0tractors.\u00a0The presence of "white-label" infrastructure monitoring solutions, capable of controlling the behavior of digital devices with diverse standards is essential to the success of these projects.\u00a0It will\u00a0be\u00a0these\u00a0solutions\u00a0that will consolidate\u00a0KPIs\u00a0critical to\u00a0business\u00a0management.